Glossary of Basic Blockchain Terminology

Understanding the basic concepts of blockchain technology is crucial for anyone wanting to engage in the rapidly evolving world of digital currencies and decentralized technologies.

For users of our platform, understanding these concepts allows them to make more informed decisions about their investments, understand the risks and opportunities, and better navigate the complex world of digital currencies.

In the context of rapid technological changes and continuous innovation, such knowledge is an invaluable tool, enabling users to stay ahead of others and leverage the potential offered by the digital era.

1. Blockchain (Data Block Chaining)

Blockchain technology stores data in a sequence of blocks, each cryptographically linked to the previous one, creating a continuous chain. Once data is added to a block, it cannot be changed or deleted without affecting the entire chain and without the network’s consensus. This feature ensures a high level of data security and irreversibility. Blockchain forms the basis for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and is used in various other applications, including supply chain tracking, smart contracts, and decentralized applications.

Practical Example: Blockchain is like a series of sealed and numbered envelopes. When a new envelope is added, it references the previous one, ensuring that the contents cannot be altered without leaving traces. This creates a system that protects information. Similarly, in blockchain, each data block is securely connected to the previous one.

2. Decentralization

Decentralization refers to the distribution of power, control, or authority from a central entity to multiple independent entities or participants. In a decentralized system, there is no single decision-making or control point; instead, decisions and control are distributed among many participants. This can lead to greater democracy, efficiency, and system resilience against errors or abuses. Decentralization is a key element of many technologies, including blockchain and cryptocurrencies, where power and control are dispersed among all network participants.

Practical Example: Decentralization is like preparing a meal at a picnic, where each participant contributes a part of the dish. No single person is controlling the entire meal, allowing for diversity and reducing reliance on an individual. In decentralized systems, responsibility is similarly dispersed among all participants.

3. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network

A P2P or peer-to-peer network is a network type where each participant (node) communicates and cooperates directly with other network participants without needing a central control system or intermediary. In such a network, each node acts as an equal partner, enabling direct exchange of information, data, or resources. This method of communication increases efficiency and reduces dependency on centralized systems, while also offering greater anonymity and security. P2P networks are commonly used in applications like file sharing, decentralized financial systems (DeFi), and cryptocurrencies.

Practical Example: A peer-to-peer network is like a flea market, where people buy and sell items directly without a store as an intermediary. Each seller sets their prices and terms, similar to a P2P network, where participants directly communicate and exchange information.

4. Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are software protocols that automatically execute when predetermined conditions are met. Operating on blockchain platforms like Ethereum, they allow for process automation without intermediaries such as banks or legal representatives. When the conditions in a smart contract are met, actions specified within it are executed, such as fund transfers or ownership registration. This ensures speed, security, transparency, and cost reduction, as it eliminates the need for manual intervention and reduces the likelihood of human error.

Practical Example: Smart contracts work like a vending machine. When you insert money into the machine, it triggers the release of a drink. Similarly, when the conditions of a smart contract are met, agreed-upon actions, like ownership transfer, are automatically triggered, enabling fast and secure transactions.

5. Transparency

Transparency in blockchain refers to the public accessibility and visibility of transaction data for all network participants. This means anyone with access to the blockchain can view the history and details of transactions, including amounts and timestamps. This attribute allows for a high level of trust and security, as each transaction is constantly verifiable and nearly impossible to conceal or change without detection. Transparency is key to preventing fraud and ensuring accountability in the blockchain system.

Practical Example: Transparency in blockchain is like using online banking, where you can view all your transactions. In blockchain, data are publicly accessible and transparent to all participants, creating trust in the system.

6. Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual asset that uses cryptography for transaction security and control over the creation of new units. Operating on decentralized platforms like blockchain, they are free from the control of central authorities such as governments and banks. Their key features include decentralization, security, and transparency, occasionally coupled with user anonymity. Famous cryptocurrencies include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ripple, each with unique characteristics. They are used for payments, investments, and asset transfers. Cryptocurrencies represent not just a new way of exchanging value, but also a revolution in understanding and managing money in the digital age.

Practical Example: Cryptocurrencies are like tokens in an arcade, valuable only within that environment. They can be used for various purposes and are exchangeable, similar to cryptocurrencies, which hold value in the digital world and can be traded.

7. Token in Blockchain Technology

In blockchain technology, a token represents a digital unit that has a specific value or represents a certain right within a blockchain ecosystem. Tokens are often used for various purposes, such as representing shares in a company, as a means of exchange in a certain system, rights to use certain services, or as a fundraising tool (ICO – Initial Coin Offering). Tokens can be created and distributed using smart contracts on blockchain platforms like Ethereum. Different tokens can have various properties and purposes, depending on the project or platform they are created for.

Practical Example: An example of blockchain token utility is the SNC token, used for paying for electric and solar energy products. Similar to books in a library borrowed under specific conditions, each token, like SNC, has its specific value and function.

8. Audit Trail

An audit trail is a detailed record that logs every action, transaction, or change occurring in a document, system, or database. This trail is crucial for ensuring transparency and enables tracking and verification of all activities. Audit trails are especially important in sectors like finance, healthcare, and information technology, as they allow for the identification and analysis of potential irregularities or security breaches. Each entry in an audit trail typically includes information about who performed the action, when it was performed, and what changes were made.

Practical Example: An audit trail in digital systems is like a bank statement that records all transactions in your account. This allows for oversight of financial activities and ensures that all transactions are correct, which is essential for security and compliance with laws.

9. Decentralized Applications (DApps)

Decentralized applications, known as DApps, are programs that run on a decentralized network of computers rather than a single central server. These applications are usually built on blockchain technology, allowing them to leverage advantages such as transparency, security, and resistance to censorship. Since DApps operate on the blockchain, data in these applications are distributed among all network participants, reducing the risk of centralized control and failure points. DApps often use smart contracts to automate processes and ensure that all transactions are executed according to predetermined rules without the need for intermediaries.

Practical Example: DApps operate like Wikipedia, where everyone can contribute and edit content. There is no central authority controlling posts, allowing applications to remain up-to-date, accurate, and secure.

10. Distributed Ledger

A distributed ledger is a type of database that is not located at a single location or server but is spread across multiple computers or nodes in a network. This approach ensures that each record or transaction is simultaneously stored at multiple locations, enhancing security and reducing the risk of data errors or manipulation. In distributed ledgers, data is not unilaterally changed; any modification must be confirmed and synchronized with all nodes in the network. This means consensus is required among all participants for any change. The most well-known form of a distributed ledger is the blockchain, used in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, but distributed ledgers can also be used in other contexts, such as supply chains, voting, and identification systems.

Practical Example: A distributed ledger is like a network of libraries, where each book is copied in multiple libraries. If one library burns down, the information is not lost because it is stored elsewhere. Similarly, in a distributed ledger, data is stored in multiple locations, ensuring information security.

11. Digital Wallet

A digital wallet is an application or device used for storing, sending, and receiving digital currencies, such as cryptocurrencies (e.g., Bitcoin, Ethereum) or even digital versions of traditional currencies. In addition to storing digital assets, digital wallets also securely store private keys necessary for accessing these assets. The private key acts as a type of digital signature, enabling the user to authorize transactions in the blockchain network. The security of a digital wallet is crucial, as unauthorized access to private keys can lead to the loss of assets. Digital wallets come in various forms, including mobile apps, desktop programs, web wallets, or even physical devices.

Practical Example: A digital wallet functions like a virtual safe, where you securely store your digital valuables. Access is possible only with a digital key, allowing secure asset management and protection against unauthorized access.

12. Consensus Algorithm

A consensus algorithm is a fundamental part of the operation of decentralized networks, such as blockchain. It involves a set of rules and procedures that allow all nodes in the network to agree on the current state of the network or the validity of certain transactions. This process is crucial because, in a decentralized environment without a central authority, all nodes must independently verify and confirm information. Consensus algorithms ensure that despite differing opinions and interests of individual network participants, the system as a whole can operate cohesively and reliably. The most well-known examples of consensus algorithms are Proof of Work (used in Bitcoin) and Proof of Stake.

Practical Example: A consensus algorithm in blockchain is like decision-making in a jury, where all members must reach a consensus. This allows the network to operate fairly and uniformly, without the need for central control.

13. Blockchain Network

A blockchain network is a system based on distributed ledger technology. This network consists of computers, known as nodes, that are interconnected and collectively manage and maintain the blockchain. In this network, each node stores a copy of the entire blockchain ledger, allowing all data on transactions and blocks to be distributed among all network members. This makes the blockchain network very secure, as changing or adding data requires the consensus of the majority of nodes. Blockchain networks can vary depending on their type and purpose, such as public or private networks.

Practical Example: A blockchain network is like a library system, where information is stored in multiple places. When data changes, the change is updated everywhere, ensuring accuracy and security of information in the network.

14. Public Blockchain

A public blockchain is a type of blockchain technology that is open and accessible to all. This means anyone can participate in the process of verifying transactions, mining cryptocurrencies (e.g., Bitcoin, Ethereum), or developing applications on this platform. Unlike private blockchains, where access is controlled by a specific group or organization, public blockchains allow complete transparency. All transactions and data are publicly accessible and visible to all network participants. This ensures a high level of security and trust, as each transaction is permanently recorded and cannot occur without the consensus of the majority of network participants.

Practical Example: A public blockchain is like a public park, open to everyone. Everyone can participate and observe all activities, ensuring transparency and security in the network.

15. Private Blockchain

A private blockchain is a specific type of blockchain technology, where access to the block chain and transactions is controlled and limited by a certain organization or group of people. This means all participants in a private blockchain must be verified and approved by the organization managing the network. Unlike public blockchains like Bitcoin, where anyone can participate in the process of verifying transactions, private blockchains allow greater control over who can participate in the network and the transactions that are carried out.

Practical Example: A private blockchain is like a private playground, open only to community members. Access is granted only to authorized members, who can participate in activities, ensuring greater control and security in the network.


Blockchain technology brings numerous innovations to the digital world, and its decentralization and transparency open new possibilities for global use. Due to its nature, it ensures a high level of data security and reliability, which is crucial in the digital age. With the development and use of various forms, such as public and private blockchains, the technology adapts to the specific needs of different industrial sectors. This allows companies and individuals around the world to take advantage of its benefits, such as efficiency, cost reduction, and improved security. Thus, blockchain is changing not only the way we store and manage data but also how we understand and use digital currencies and smart contracts, creating a new wave of innovation and possibilities on a global scale.

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